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ŠOLSKA KRONIKA / SCHOOL CHRONICLE 2019/3


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IZJAVA O ETIKI OBJAVLJANJA IN ZLORABAH PRI OBJAVLJANJU

PUBLICATION ETHICS AND PUBLICATION MALPRACTICE STATEMENT

UREDNIŠKI ODBOR REVIJE ŠOLSKA KRONIKA / EDITORIAL BOARD OF PUBLICATION SCHOOL CHRONICLE

Šolska kronika / Navodila avtorjem in avtoricam

School Chronicle / Instructions to contributors

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Š O L S K A K RO N I K A

REVIJA ZA ZGODOVINO ŠOLSTVA IN VZGOJE

Glasilo Slovenskega šolskega muzeja, Ljubljana

Leto 2019, številka 3

Letnik 28– LII


School Chronicle /
Schulchronik
Journal of the History of Schooling and Education.
Bulletin of the Slovenian School Museum. Ljubljana. Slovenia
.
Zeitschrift für Schul - und Erziehungsgeschichte. Organ des
Slowenischen Schulmuseums. Ljubljana. Slowenien.

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15th International Symposium on School Life and School

History Museums & Collections / 15. mednarodni simpozij

šolskih muzejev in šolsko-zgodovinskih zbirk

 

Creating links in education. Teachers and their associations

as promoters of pedagogic development (historical and museum aspects)

Povezovanje v izobraževanju: učiteljstvo in njihova društva

kot spodbujevalci pedagoškega razvoja (zgodovinski in muzejski pogledi)

Vernetzung im Bereich Bildung. Die Lehrpersonen und deren Berufsorganisationen

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INTRODUCTION / EINFÜHRUNG / UVOD ...293–294

 

Teachers & their associations / Učitelji in učiteljska društva

ČLANKI IN PRISPEVKI / ARTICLES AND OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS / ARTIKEL UND BEITRÄGE

Merja Paksuniemi, Mateja Ribarič, Johannes Westberg: Unmarried, well behaved and well dressed: The socialization process of female teachers in early twentieth-century Finland and Slovenia ...295–310
Unverheiratet, vorbildlich und ordentlich: Der Sozialisationsprozess von Lehrerinnen im frühen 20. Jahrhundert in Finnland und Slowenien
Neporočene, vzorne in urejene: Proces socializacije učiteljic v začetku dvajsetega stoletja na Finskem in v Sloveniji

 

Paulí Dávila, Luis Mª Naya: The Basque teaching profession, associativism and the Spanish civil service ...312–320
Baskischer Lehrberuf, Lehrerverbände und die spanische Staatsverwaltung
Baskijski učiteljski poklic, učiteljska društva in španska državna služba

 

Alberto Barausse: Primary school teachers’ associationism in Italy from unification to Giolitti’s age ...321–333
Verbindung von Grundschullehrern in Italien von der Wiedervereinigung bis zur Giolitti-Zeit
Povezovanje osnovnošolskih učiteljev v Italiji od združitve do Giolittijevega obdobja

 

András Németh: Die historische Konstruktionsprozesse des Fachwissens von Volksschullehrern in Ungarn am Beispiel der Enzyklopädie des Volksschulunterrichts 1913-1915 ...334–342
The historical construction processes of the knowledge of elementary school teachers in Hungary using the Encyclopaedia of elementary school education 1913-1915
Zgodovinski konstrukcijski procesi strokovnega znanja ljudskošolskih učiteljev na Madžarskem na primeru Enciklopedije osnovnošolskega pouka 1913-1915

 

Ljiljana Stankov: The contribution of male and female teachers to the foundation of empirical pedagogy in Serbia, with reference to Serbian association for child psychology (Srpsko društvo za dečju psihologiju) ...343–353
Der Beitrag männlicher und weiblicher Lehrer zur Gründung der empirischen Pädagogik in Serbien unter Bezugnahme auf das Serbische Verein für Kinderpsychologie (Srpsko društvo za dečju psihologiju)
Prispevek učiteljev in učiteljic k nastanku empirične pedagogike v Srbiji na primeru Srbskega društva za otroško psihologijo

 

Michelina D'Alessio: “Near to teachers”. The association ANIMI (National Association for the Interests of Southern Italy) at the beginning of 20th century ...354–363
"In der Nähe von Lehrern". Der Verein ANIMI (National Verein für die Interessen Süditaliens) zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts
“V bližni učteljev." Združnje ANIMI (Nacionalno združnje za interese juže Italije) v začtku 20. stoletja

 

Fabio Targhetta: The section of Padua of the Italian Pedagogical Association (Associazione Pedagogica Italiana) in the late 20th century ...364–372
Die Sektion von Padua der Italienischen Pädagogischen Vereinigung (Associazione Pedagogica Italiana) im späten 20. Jahrhundert
Padovanska sekcija Italijanskega pedagoškega združenja (Associazione Pedagogica Italiana) v poznem 20. stoletju

 

Tea Anžur: The Association of University Professors of Ljubljana ...373–383
Vereinigung der Universitätsprofessoren von Ljubljana
Društvo univerzitetnih profesorjev v Ljubljani

School museums & teachers & education / Šolski muzeji, učiteljstvo in izobraževanje

Jan Šimek: The importance of teachers’ association in the establishment of the Pedagogical museum in Prague ...384–395
Bedeutung der Lehrerverbände bei der Errichtung des Pädagogischen Museums in Prag
Pomen učiteljskih društev za nastanek Pedagoškega muzeja v Pragi

 

Chiara Grassi: The training of teachers in the National Museum of School (Museo Nazionale della Scuola), Florence (1925-1945) ...396–403
Die Ausbildung von Lehrern im Nationalen Schulmuseum (Museo Nazionale della Scuola) von Florenz (1925-1945)
Izobraževanje učiteljev v Narodnem šolskem muzeju (Museo Nazionale della Scuola) v Firencah (1925-1945)

 

Antonis Hourdakis, Konstantinos Karras, Angeliki Polyzou, Marina Suka:
School history museums & collections and teachers’ profession: the example of the Laboratory for the study and research of the history of education and teachers’ profession (LSRHETP) at the University of Crete, Greece ...404–420
Schulmuseen und Schulgeschichtlichen Sammlungen und der Lehrberuf: das Beispiel des Labors für das Studium und die Erforschung der Geschichte der Erziehung und des Lehrerberufs (LSRHETP) an der Universität von Kreta, Griechenland
Šolski muzeji in zbirke ter učiteljski poklic: primer Laboratorija za proučevanje in raziskovanje zgodovine izobraževanja in učiteljskega poklica (LSRHETP) na Univerzi otoka Kreta, Grčija

 

Rossella Andreassi: Museum of School and Popular Education (Museo della scuola e dell’educazione popolare) of the University of Molise, Italy ...421–431
Museum für Schulgeschichte und Volksbildung an der Universität von Molise, Italien
Muzej šolstva in ljudskega izobraževanja na Univerzi Molise, Italija

 

Francesca Mogavero: MUSLI: an integrated museum from school to children’s books in Torino ...432–440
MUSLI: ein integriertes Museum von der Schule bis zum Kinderbuch in Turin
MUSLI: povezovalen muzej od šolskih do otroških knjig v Torinu

 

Maria Drakaki: Museums of education as fields of cultural management. Comparative analysis in Greece ...441–452
Schulmuseen als Felder des Kulturmanagements. Vergleichende Analyse in Griechenland
Muzeji izobraževanja kot področja kulturnega upravljanja. Primerjalna analiza v Grčiji

 

Moses S. Jayeola-Omoyeni: Museum – Center for adult literacy education delivery in Nigeria, 2000-2010: Evaluation ...453–462
Museum als Zentrum für Erwachsenenbildung in Nigeria, 2000-2010: Evaluation
Muzej kot center za opismenjevanje odraslih v Nigeriji, 2000–2010: evalvacija

 

Paulí Dávila, Luis Mª Naya: A Project about a Museum of education in the Basque Country ...463–472
Projekt über ein Bildungsmuseum im Baskenland
Projekt Muzeja izobraževanja v Baskiji

 

Tina Palaić: When the “West” meets the “East”: School museum in Yogyakarta, Indonesia ...474–484
Wenn der »Westen« auf den »Osten« trifft: Schulmuseum in Yogyakarta, Indonesien
Ko se “Zahod” sreč z “Vzhodom”: Šlski muzej v Jogjakarti, Indonezija

 

Between Ljubljana and Crete: International Symposium on School Life and School History Museums & Collections from Slovenia 2013 – (15th Symposium) to Greece 2021 (19th Symposium) ...487–498
Zwischen Ljubljana und Kreta: Internationales Symposium der Schulmuseen und Schulgeschichtlichen Sammlungen von Slowenien 2013 (15. Symposium) bis Griechenland 2021 (19. Symposium)
Med Ljubljano in Kreto: Simpoziji šolskih muzejev in šolsko-zgodovinskih zbirk od Slovenije 2013 (15. simpozij) do Grčije 2021 (19. simpozij)

 

Invitation to the 19th Symposium on School Life and School History Museums & Collections in Rethymno, Crete ...499
Einführung zum 19. Symposium der Schulmuseen und Schulgeschichtlichen Sammlungen in Rethymno, Kreta
Povabilo na 19. simpozij šolskih muzejev in šolsko-zgodovinski zbirk v Rethymno na Kreti

 

Supplement / Ergänzung / Dodatek:
Programme - 15th Symposium 2013, Ljubljana, 26-29. 6. 2013 ...501–507

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Povzetki in abstrakti / Summaries and Abstracts / ŠK 2019 št. 3

 

Merja Paksuniemi, Mateja Ribarič, Johannes Westberg: Unmarried, well behaved and well dressed: The socialization process of female teachers in early twentieth-century Finland and Slovenia
- Unverheiratet, vorbildlich und ordentlich: Der Sozialisationsprozess von Lehrerinnen im frühen 20. Jahrhundert in Finnland und Slowenien
- Neporočene, vzorne in urejene: Proces socializacije učiteljic v začetku dvajsetega stoletja na Finskem in v Sloveniji

Izvleček
Devetnajsto in zgodnje dvajseto stoletje je bilo obdobje feminizacije učiteljskega poklica. Namen pričujočega članka je proučiti proces profesionalizacije učiteljic na Finskem in v Sloveniji v začetku dvajsetega stoletja. Članek se osredotoča na naslednja vprašanja: Kakšnim zahtevam so morala dekleta zadostiti za vpis na učiteljišče? Katere veščine naj bi bodoče učiteljice pridobile na učiteljiščih? Kakšen oblačilni videz in kakšno vedenje se je pričakovalo od učiteljic? Na podlagi zgodovinskih virov prikazuje članek tako razlike kot podobnosti v teh pogledih. Poleg različnih zahtev, ki so jih morale učiteljice izpolnjevati za vpis na učiteljišče, opozarja članek tudi na znanje in individualne karakteristike, ki so se pričakovale od njih. Ugotovitve kažejo, da so učiteljice morale biti moralne, spodobne, vzorne in skromnega videza. Članek odpira vprašanja, kako in zakaj se predstave o popolni učiteljici razlikujejo skozi čas in med različnimi državami.

Abstract
The nineteenth and early twentieth centuries saw the feminization of the teaching profession. The aim of this article is to examine the professionalization process of female teachers in Finland and Slovenia in the early twentieth century. As such, the article focuses on answering the following questions: What were the requirements for young women to enter teacher-training colleges? What kinds of skills were future female teachers supposed to learn at teachertraining colleges? How were female teachers expected to dress and behave? Based on historical source materials, this article reveals both differences and similarities in these respects. In addition to stating the various requirements for entrance to teacher-training colleges, the article indicates the teaching skills and individual characteristics that were expected of female teachers. As the findings indicate, female teachers were expected to be moral and decent individuals, who behaved well and dressed modestly. Thus, this article raises questions about how and why notions of the ideal female teacher vary across countries and over time.

Conclusion
In this article, we have examined the norms, regulations and ideology surrounding the feminization of the teaching profession in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In investigating female teacher training in Finland and Slovenia in the early twentieth century, this article has highlighted the great expectations for female teachers. In addition to learning to teach and the contents of a range of school subjects, female teachers were supposed to be model citizens, behave well and dress modestly. Furthermore, they had to be hard-working and lead healthy lives. For instance, the image of a teacher included abstinence, and being unmarried and devoted to teaching were virtues. Apart from linking these ideals to the professional socialization of teachers – that is, the process of becoming part of a profession or an occupational group – this article has placed this process in the context of nineteenth-century schooling. The expansion of primary schooling required a larger number of teachers which the male teacher profession could not supply. As a result, female teachers had to be employed, although teaching as well as public offices traditionally had been almost exclusively male arenas. Thus, the ideal of a female teacher may be understood as a way of adapting the female teaching profession to this context, where there were great expectations, but where one could not expect much of a salary in return. Therefore, this article raises further questions regarding the similarities and differences in the ideal female teacher across countries. As the findings presented in this article show, despite the social, economic and cultural differences, there were certainly striking similarities between Finland and Slovenia in the early twentieth century. These questions also concern societal changes over time and how they were related to changes in the school system.

Ključne besede: podoba učiteljice, učiteljišče, ženske, Finska, Slovenija
Key words: female teacher image, teacher-training college, women, Finland, Slovenia

15th Symposium on School Life, part 52: Merja Paksuniemi.
Visit us / obiščite nas: Sistory,
http://hdl.handle.net/11686/37705

 

Paulí Dávila, Luis Mª Naya: The Basque teaching profession, associativism and the Spanish civil service
- Baskischer Lehrberuf, Lehrerverbände und die spanische Staatsverwaltung
- Baskijski učiteljski poklic, učiteljska društva in španska državna služba

Izvleček
V prispevku bomo analizirali položaj baskovskega šolstva od konca 19. do prve tretjine 20. stoletja, kajti gre za ključno obdobje za proučevanje različnih dejavnikov, ki so vplivali na proces normalizacije izobraževanja v Baskiji. V tem času lahko opazujemo: 1. standardizacijsko politiko države; 2. politike deželnega sveta baskovskih ozemelj, ki spodbujajo nove oblike baskovskega izobraževanja; 3. dejanja združenj baskovskih učiteljev, ki zahtevajo enakovrednost baskovsko-navarskega izobraževanja s preostalim španskim izobraževanjem; 4. strokovni pedagoški tisk, ki zahteva prej omenjeno, in 5. oblikovanje alternativ uradnemu državnemu izobraževanju ter nastajanje mestnih in podeželskih šol.

Abstract
In this contribution, we are going to analyze the situation of the Basque teaching from the end of the 19th century up to the first third of the 20th century because it is a key period to study the different agents who took part in the process of normalization of the teaching in the Basque Country. In this sense, it can be observed: 1) the standardizing politics of the State; 2) the policies of the Provincial Council of the Basque territories, raising new forms of formation of the Basque teaching; 3) the actions of the associations of the Basque teaching, requesting the equalization of the Basque-Navarre teaching to the one that the rest of Spanish colleagues had; 4) the professional press of teaching claiming the aforementioned ones and 5) the creation of alternatives to the official teaching of the State from some city councils, through the creation of a municipal and a rural teaching.
Conclusions
In the first decade of the 20th century, Spain developed policies favorable to the teaching profession with the goal that teachers become State civil servants. To this end, it was fundamental for the State to pay the salaries of teachers directly. Nonetheless, given that, the Basque Country enjoyed an agreement with the State, known as the Economic Accord; it was not possible to apply this decision. To this end, Basque teachers suffered financial discrimination. In order to resolve this situation, Basque professional associations and the teachers’ press demanded the same financial privileges as their Spanish colleagues. After various negotiations, in 1912 the State took on the responsibility for the salaries of teachers in the Basque Country. The role played by the professional associations and the teachers’ press, both in the Basque Country and in Spain, was fundamental, as they channelled the protests and demands of professional teachers into accepting to a great degree that the State take over responsibility for their salaries. The consequence of all this was that the Basque provinces lost certain control over teaching staffs and, at the same time, ceded part of their powers, thereto recognised under the Economic Accord, to the State. From this moment on the Basque teachers’ professional press and associations were to share the same interests as their Spanish colleagues, being as they were part of the same corps of civil servants.

Summary
The creation of the teaching as a government employees' body, in the Spanish case, is recent. The educational policies developed by the Spanish State, at the beginning of the 20th century, were directed to assure that teachers should have an insured salary. This right was not guaranteed until that moment because they depended on local and provincial instances. Since the Law of Budgets of 1901, the State was guaranteeing the punctual payment of the salaries to the teaching. Nevertheless, this general politics could not be extended to the whole territory since the Basque Country and Navarre were enjoying a particular privilege as they had the Economic Agreement, which was an agreement between the State and these territories. In these agreements a series of attributions was recognized to the territories on the part of the State. In this contribution we are going to analyze the situation of the Basque teaching from the end of the 19th century up to the first third of the 20th century because it is a key period to study the different agents who took part in the process of normalization of the teaching in the Basque Country. In this sense, it can be observed: 1) the standardizing politics of the State; 2) the policies of the Provincial Council of the Basque territories, raising new forms of formation of the Basque teaching; 3) the actions of the associations of the Basque teaching, requesting the equalization of the Basque-Navarre teaching to the one that the rest of Spanish colleagues had; 4) the professional press of teaching claiming the aforementioned ones and 5) the creation of alternatives to the official teaching of the State from some city councils, through the creation ofa municipal and a rural teaching. In all this process, the role of the associativism of the teaching, through the Federation of Associations of the Basque-Navarre Teaching, and the professional magazines (“El Magisterio Alavés”) was a key element. The aim of this contribution is to reveal the existing conflict between the Spanish State and the Basque territories in relation to the teaching, indicating the set of agents who were rose up before this situation. This paper is the result of a research project financed by the Spanish Ministry for Science and Education, project number EDU-2010-15218. The authors are members of the Group for Historical and Comparative Studies in Education – Garaian, recognized by the Basque Government, registry number IT 603/13 and of the Unity of Education and Research “Education, Culture and Society (UFI 11/54)” of the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU.Ključne besede: Baskija, Španija, učitelji, 19. stoletje, 20. stoletje
Key words: Basque Country, Spain, teachers, 19th century, 20th century

15th Symposium on School Life, part 50: Visit us / obiščite nas - Sistory.si: http://hdl.handle.net/11686/37703

 

Alberto Barausse: Primary school teachers’ associationism in Italy from unification to Giolitti’s age
- Verbindung von Grundschullehrern in Italien von der Wiedervereinigung bis zur Giolitti-Zeit
- Povezovanje osnovnošolskih učiteljev v Italiji od združitve do Giolittijevega obdobja

Izvleček
Namen prispevka je, slediti razvoju učiteljskega združevanja in prehodu iz pretežno lokalističnih, skupnih oblik družbenih organizacij v bolj profesionalne in nacionalno organizirane skupine. Ta proces se je začel konec štiridesetih let 19. stoletja v Piemontu. Po rojstvu italijanske države so se učiteljska združenja množila, zlasti v mestnih središčih, kot so Milano, Neapelj, Rim, Firence, Genova itd. Toda šele v osemdesetih letih 19. stoletja so se začele uveljavljati zgodnje izkušnje na nacionalnem nivoju.

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of teachers’ associationism and the transition from mainly localistic, mutualistic modes of social organization to more professional and nationally organized groups. This process started at the end of the forties of the 19th Century in the State of Piemonte. But only since the eighties of the 19th Century the early experience began at national character.

Povzetek
Pričujoči prispevek povzema najnovejše študije o fenomenu povezovanja osnovnošolskih učiteljev v Italiji v času med združitvijo in Giolittijevim obdobjem, v dramatičnih letih prve svetovne vojne in letih krize liberalnih demokratičnih institucij ter v času širjenja fašizma. Namen prispevka je slediti razvoju učiteljskega združevanja in prehodu iz pretežno lokalističnih, skupnih oblik družbenih organizacij v bolj profesionalne in nacionalno organizirane skupine. Ta proces se je začel konec štiridesetih let 19. stoletja v Piemontu, zahvaljujoč aktivizmu inšpektorjev, učiteljev ali liberalnih politikov, ki so verjeli v izobraževanje kot vrednoto in orodje za boljši ekonomski, družbeni in politični razvoj. V tem obdobju so se člani združenja zavzemali za širjenje osnovnega in ljudskega izobraževanja, za višjo izobrazbo učiteljev. Promovirali so vrtce, večerne in nedeljske šole, deške in dekliške elementarne šole; hkrati pa so pripravili načrte za vzpostavitev novih »običajnih« šol in novih oblik medsebojne pomoč. Po rojstvu italijanske države so se učiteljska združenja množila, zlasti v mestnih središčih, kot so Milano, Neapelj, Rim, Firence, Genova itd. Toda šele v osemdesetih letih 19. stoletja so se začele uveljavljati zgodnje izkušnje na nacionalnem nivoju. Zlasti so upoštevani nekateri najpomembnejši primeri združenj osnovnošolskih učiteljev v 19. in 20. stoletju, npr. Nacionalno združenje osnovnošolskih učiteljev Italije (Associazione Nazionale fra gli insegnanti elementari d’Italia), ustanovljeno leta 1880, in Nacionalno učiteljsko združenje (Unione Magistrale Nazionale), ki je bilo aktivno od leta 1901 do 1925.

Ključne besede: osnovna šola, učiteljstvo, društva, Unione Magistrale Nazionale (Državna zveza osnovnošolskih učiteljev), Italija
Key words: primary school, teachers, assocations, Unione Magistrale Nazionale (Primary Teachers National Union), Italy
15th Symposium on School Life, part 8. Visit us / obiščite nas – Sistory:
http://hdl.handle.net/11686/37652

 

András Németh: Die historische Konstruktionsprozesse des Fachwissens von Volksschullehrern in
Ungarn am Beispiel der Enzyklopädie des Volksschulunterrichts 1913-1915
- Zgodovinski konstrukcijski procesi strokovnega znanja ljudskošolskih učiteljev na Madžarskem na primeru Enciklopedije osnovnošolskega pouka 1913–1915
-T
he historical construction processes of the knowledge of elementary school teachers in Hungary using the Encyclopaedia of elementary school education 1913-1915

Izvleček
Reforma izobraževanja učiteljev kot del bolonjskega procesa visokega šolstva je eno ključnih vprašanj izobraževalnih reform v Evropski uniji danes. Toda ta reforma želi spremeniti zgodovinsko oblikovan koncept usposabljanja učiteljev, ki je sledil vzorcem evropskih trendov oblikovanih med začetkom 19. in sredino 20. stoletja – upoštevajoč časovni zamik na različnih območjih. Raziskava sledi postopku institucionalizacije usposabljanja madžarskih učiteljev in njihovemu znanju, za katerega je bil značilen prej omenjeni. Ta proces je zbledel pod vplivom nacionalnih tradicij in srednjeevropskih tendenc. V središču našega raziskovanja sta dve različni vrsti strokovnega znanja (osnovnošolski in srednješolski učitelji) ter vsebina teoretičnega mišljenja, ki se je pojavilo na področjih znanosti. Naša predstavitev se osredotoča na ta zelo zapleten postopek in analizira učbenike za izobraževanje madžarskih učiteljev ter izobraževalne publikacije iz konca 19. in začetka 20. stoletja, tudi Enciklopedijo osnovnošolskega pouka (Az elemi népoktatás enciklopédiája)

Abstract
The reform of teacher’s training as part of the Bologna process of the higher education is one of the key questions of the educational reforms in the European Union today. This reform however aims to transform the historically shaped pattern of teachers’ training model, that followed the patterns of the European trends that were formed inbetween the beginning of 19th century and the middle of 20th century - with some time-lag of course in the different regions. Our research aims to follow the process of the institutionalization of Hungarian teachers’ training and teacher’s knowledge which was characterized by the above mentioned "dual system’" This process passed off under the influence of the national traditions as well as the central European tendencies. In the centre of our research stand the two different professional knowledge-types (elementary and secondary school teachers) and also the contents of the theoretical reflection which appeared in the fields of science. Our lecture focuses on this very complex process and analyses the Hungarian teacher’s training textbooks and educational publications of the late 19th and early 20th century, including Encyclopaedia of elementary school education (Az elemi népoktatás enciklopédiája).

Zusammenfassung
Auf Grund unserer Analysen kann man resümieren, dass die Enzyklopädie des Volksschulunterrichts vom
Zustandekommen der neuen Betrachtung des Wissens der ungarischen Volksschullehrer eine bedeutende Schöpfung auf dem Wege zum autonomen Fachwissen ist. Das in der Enzyklopädie formulierte, in den Anfängen des 20. Jahrhunderts zustande gekommene, das Fachgerechte betonende, dem neuen fachlichen Etalon entsprechenden Fachwissen der Volksschullehrer, besteht anscheinend manchmal aus sich gegenüberstehenden Elementen. Solche, die moderne Wissenschaftlichkeit begründenden Strömungen und Bewegungen der positivistischen Orientierung sind darin beschrieben, wie die Bemühungen des hygienischen Diskurses, weiterhin die Ergebnisse der experimentalen Pädagogik und der Kinderstudien. Daneben erscheinen darin mit starker gesellschaftskritischer Schärfe formulierte rhetorische Elemente der scheinbar gegenüberstehenden Ideologie der Lebensreform und der Reformpädagogik. Diese zeitgenössischen Bemühungen bilden zusammen die Grundlage der ideologischen Elemente des neuen Volksschullehrerwissens, deren ethische Erwartungen und deren Kompetenzinhalt. In diesem Wissenskonstruktions-Prozess enthält der Gedanke von der allgemeinen Gültigkeit der Rettung der Lebensreform einen starken normativen Inhalt, der hier eine starke pädagogische Orientierung gewinnend, als Metaphorik der Rettung des Kindes erscheint. Sein Hauptfunktion ist die Sicherung des ideologischen Hintergrundes einer solchen erwünschten fachgerechten pädagogischen Arbeit, die eine positive emotionelle Ladung hat. Sie steht mit der notwendigen neuen Wissenschaftlichkeit zur Gründung der sachgemäßen Arbeit, mit den Kinderstudien, die auf die empirischen Messungen – Bewertungen (Leistungs- Aufmerksamkeits- und Erinnerungsuntersuchungen) aufgebaut werden, bzw. auch mit den empirischen Prinzipen der Pädagogik in enger Verbindung. Der im 19. Jahrhundert aufkommender Diskurs über die Hygiene und damit im Zusammenhang über die Wichtigkeit des gesunden menschlichen Körpers beeinflusste aus zwei Richtungen die Prozesse der Lehrerwissenskonstruktionen. Einerseits erscheint darin in impliziter Weise das Grundbedürfnis für die wirksame Arbeitsleistung der modernen europäischen Arbeitsgesellschaft, das den beherrschten menschlichen Körper bzw. die körperliche und die seelische Gesundheit betont. Die Schule hat im Prozess der Institutionalisierung – anhand der Entwicklung des Gesundheitswesens – den körperlichen und seelischen Bezug des Kinderschutzes gleichermaßen verstärkend, die Versorgung des gesundheitlichen und moralischen Schutzes der Schüler als Aufgabe der Schule gestellt. Laut der Selbstdefinition der Enzyklopädie ist der Fachmann der Volksschule die Schlüsselfigur der Verwirklichung der erwarteten Aufgaben, die in dem fachlichen Diskurs von vorher beschrieben wurden. Die zu der Zeit sich herausgebildeten ideologischen und ethischen Motive des neuen fachlichen Wissens werden von dem Rettungsmotiv gesichert, das von den verschiedenen pädagogischen Reformbewegungen reflektiert wird und auf die rhetorischen Elemente der Lebensreform zurückgeführt werden kann. Die Voraussetzung vom Ergebnis der Kinderrettung ist nicht nur die Berufung, sondern die wahre Kenntnis des Kindes, deren Wissens- und Kompetenzelemente wissenschaftlich begründet sind und deren Hintergrund von der empirisch grundierten Psychologie und Pädagogik bzw. von den Kinderstudien gesichert wird.

Ključne besede: osnovnošolski in srednješolski učitelji, izobraževanje, učbeniki, Madžarska
Key words: elementary and secondary school teachers, education, textbooks, Hungary
15th Symposium on School Life, part 65. Visit us / obiščite nas – Sistory:
http://hdl.handle.net/11686/37732

 

Ljiljana Stankov: The contribution of male and female teachers to the foundation of empirical pedagogy in Serbia, with reference to Serbian association for child psychology (Srpsko društvo za dečju psihologiju)
- Der Beitrag männlicher und weiblicher Lehrer zur Gründung der empirischen Pädagogik in Serbien unter Bezugnahme auf das Serbische Verein für Kinderpsychologie (Srpsko društvo za dečju psihologiju)
- Prispevek učiteljev in učiteljic k nastanku empirične pedagogike v Srbiji na primeru Srbskega društva za otroško psihologijo.

Izvleček
Na pobudo 16. generacije maturantov Moškega učiteljišča, ob 15. obletnici njihove mature 1906, so leta 1907 v Beogradu ustanovili Srbsko društvo za otroško psihologijo. Društvo je zbralo nad petsto članov, največ učiteljev in profesorjev. Pričelo je izdajati svoje glasilo – „Glasnik Srpskog društva za dečju psihologiju“. Društvo je pripravilo tri srečanja, en tečaj s področja otroške psihologije in opravilo 22 raziskav, s katerimi so preučevali različna področja otrokovega razvoja. Prav tako so učiteljem omogočili strokovno usposabljanje na področju otroške psihologije. V Vranju so odprli manjši laboratorij z moderno opremo iz tovarne Zimmerman v Leipzigu. Po letu 1910 je društvo prenehalo delovati, predvsem zaradi pomanjkanja denarja, saj niso imeli zadostne podpore državnih prosvetnih oblasti.

Abstract
At the initiative of the 16th generation of graduated students of the Male Teacher Training College, on the 15th anniversary of their graduation in 1906, the Serbian Association for Child Psychology was founded in Belgrade in 1907. The Association assembled more than 500 members, who were mostly teachers and professors. They published their own journal – „Glasnik Srpskog društva za dečju psihologiju“ / „The Herald of the Association for Child Psychology“. The Association organized three meetings, one course from the field of child psychology, 22 surveys to study different issues of child development. They also had ambition to offer teachers a professional training in the field of child psychology. A small laboratory was open in Vranje, with the most modern equipment ordered from the Zimmerman’s factory in Leipzig. After 1910 the Association stopped its activities due to lack of money for professional activities, since the state authorities did not offer adequate support.

Summary
The Association of Serbian Teachers was founded in 1881. It launched its own journal The Teacher, at the very beginning of the next year. In the last decade of the 19th century this Association founded also the School Museum. In the first decade of the last century the branches of the Association published their own local journals. During that time, the idea that teachers can contribute to the foundation and development of national pedagogy, based on the research of physical and psychical development of Serbian children, matured. At the initiative of the 16th generation of graduated students of the Male Teacher Training College, the Serbian Association for Child Psychology was founded in Belgrade in 1907. The Association assembled more than 500 members, who were mostly teachers and professors. They published their own journal Glasnik - The Herald. The Association organized three meetings, one course from the field of child psychology, 22 surveys. The surveys were conducted with the aim to study different issues of child development, like anthropometric measurements, children’s speech, drawings, basic concepts like numbers, children’s ideals, as well as their learning styles, memory and reckoning. The exhibition with photographs, audio track, written materials and craftworks of children up to 15 was prepared, with the view to collect material for the foundation of the psychology of Serbian children. They also had ambition to offer teachers a professional training in the field of child psychology. Due to persistence of teachers from the district of Vranje, a small laboratory was open there, with the most modern equipment ordered from the Zimmerman’s factory in Leipzig, although that district was one of the poorest in the country. After 1910 the Association stopped its activities due to lack of money for professional seminars and lectures and for publishing the journal, since the state authorities did not offer adequate support.

Ključne besede: društvo za otroško psihologijo, učiteljstvo, Srbija, 1907-1910
Key words: association for child psychology, teachers, Serbia, 1907-1910
15th Symposium on School Life, part 38. Visit us / obiščite nas – Sistory:
http://hdl.handle.net/11686/37688

 

Michelina D'Alessio: “Near to teachers”. The association ANIMI (National Association for the Interests of Southern Italy) at the beginning of 20th century
- "In der Nähe von Lehrern". Der Verein ANIMI (National Verein für die Interessen Süditaliens) zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts
- “V bližni učteljev." Združnje ANIMI (Nacionalno združnje za interese juže Italije) v začtku 20. stoletja

Izvleček
Namen prispevka je prikazati zgodovino društva ANIMI (Associazione Nazionale per gli Interessi del Mezzogiorno d'Italia/ Nacionalno združenje za interese južne Italije, ustanovljeno 1908), izvirno italijansko društveno izkušnjo na področju poučevanja in boj proti nepismenosti v južni Italiji v začetku 20. stoletja. Leta 1921 je društvo dobilo od ministrstva nalogo razširiti osnovno šolstvo v različnih regionalnih območjih južne Italije (Bazilikata, Kalabrija, Sicilija in Sardinija), zlasti pa usmeriti ukrepe v razširjanje kulture in povečanje izobraževalne dejavnosti. Združenje ANIMI je veliko pozornosti namenilo odprtju vrtcev, šolskih knjižnic in ljudskih, večernih, prazničnih, vsakodnevnih šol, preskrbi z učnim gradivom in pripomočki kot tudi skrbi za pedagoško ter izobraževalno pripravo učiteljev in učiteljic.

Abstract
The object of the paper is to describe the history of ANIMI (Associazione Nazionale per gli Interessi del Mezzogiorno d’Italia / National Association for the Interests of Southern Italy), an original Italian associative experience in the field of teaching education and the struggle against the illiteracy in Italy through the beginning of 20th century. In 1921, it obtained from the ministry the task of the work for dissemination of primary school in different regional areas of southern Italy, like Basilicata, Calabria, Sicilia and Sardinia, in particular directing action to the dissemination of culture and the increase in educational works. In addition to the opening of kindergartens, school libraries and popular, evening, festive, daily schools, supply of teaching materials and tools, significant attention was paid by ANIMI to the choice and care, pedagogical, educative preparation of male and female teachers.

Summary
The object of the paper is to describe the history of ANIMI (Associazione Nazionale per gli Interessi del Mezzogiorno d’Italia), an original Italian associative experience in the field of teaching education and the struggle against the illiteracy in Italy through the beginning of 20th century. ANIMI was born as a service made on a volunteer basis during Messina (Sicily) earthquake in 1908. In 1921, it obtained from the ministry the task of the work for disseminated primary school in different regional areas of southern Italy, like Basilicata, Calabria, Sicilia and Sardinia, in particular directing action to the dissemination of culture and the increase in educational
works. In addition to the opening of kindergartens, school libraries and popular, evening, festive, daily schools, supply of teaching materials and tools, significant attention was paid by ANIMI to the choice and care, pedagogical, educative preparation of male and female teachers. The educational and cultural was deployed on several levels: through the organization of educational conferences; culture courses for rural teachers (including those in education and child hygiene education); permanent educational exhibitions at the regional offices; an intense editorial publication (Connection sheets for teachers; Rules and instructions; Teaching programs). Among the key factors in the proposal of new teaching methods, include the specificity attributed to new schools and the evaluation of the environmental and cultural living conditions of the southern part of Italy. In this work of “differentiation teaching” that is given to the places, the central figures of rural male and female teachers, as well as to an appropriate manuals for schools, lies much of the effectiveness of education and teaching, promoted by local delegates. After seven years of important and portentous activities (1921-1928), the Association gave back the delegation to the State, because of the inability to continue with freedom and autonomous spirit in its field of action, since the urgent interference of fascism, from its representatives in local political level: the delegation was later passed on to the Opera Nazionale Balilla.


Ključne besede: združenje ANIMI, učiteljstvo, izobraževanje, nepismenost, južna Italija
Key words: assocation ANIMI, teachers, education, illiteracy, South Italy
15th Symposium on School Life, part 48: Visit us / obiščite nas - Sistory: http://hdl.handle.net/11686/37700

 

Fabio Targhetta: The section of Padua of the Italian Pedagogical Association (Associazione Pedagogica Italiana) in the late 20th century
- Die Sektion von Padua der Italienischen Pädagogischen Vereinigung Associazione Pedagogica Italiana) im späten 20. Jahrhundert
- Padovanska sekcija Italijanskega pedagoškega združenja (Associazione Pedagogica Italiana) v poznem 20. stoletju

Izvleček
Italijansko pedagoško združenje (Associazione Pedagogica Italiana), ustanovljeno leta 1950 v Firencah, je še vedno dejavno po vsej državi, zahvaljujoč usklajenemu prizadevanju številnih lokalnih sekcij. Posebnost programa Italijanskega pedagoškega združenja je povezovanje učiteljev vseh ravni izobrazbe in univerzitetnih profesorjev, da bi izboljšali in prenovili šolo in katerokoli drugo izobraževalno ustanovo, kot tudi izboljšali študij in raziskave na področju pedagogike. Padovanska sekcija se vse od ustanovitve odlikuje po organizaciji konferenc in osvežitvenih tečajev za osnovnošolske učitelje. Obsežna dokumentacija, ki se nanaša na dejavnosti sekcije, se trenutno hrani v Muzeju izobraževanja (Museo dell'Educazione) Univerze v Padovi.

Abstract
The Italian Pedagogical Association (Associazione Pedagogica Italiana), founded in Florence in 1950, is still active throughout the country, thanks to the coordinated effort of the numerous local sections. The distinctive feature of the Italian Pedagogical Association is to bring together school teachers of all levels and university professors in order to improve and renovate the school and any other educational institution, as well as to enhance studies and researches in the field of Pedagogy and education. The section of Padua has distinguished itself since its founding by the organization of conferences and refresher courses for teachers of elementary schools. A significant amount of documentation relating to the activity of this section is currently preserved at the Museum of Education (Museo dell'Educazione) University of Padua.

Summary
The Italian Pedagogical Association (Associazione Pedagogica Italiana), founded in Florence in 1950 by Giovanni Calò in cooperation with some of the major scholars of Pedagogy (Aldo Agazzi, Giovanni Maria Bertin, Giuseppe Flores d’Arcais), is still active throughout the country, thanks to the coordinated effort of the numerous local sections. The distinctive feature of the Italian Pedagogical Association is to bring together school teachers of all levels and university professors in order to improve and renovate the school and any other educational institution, as well as to enhance studies and researches in the field of Pedagogy and education. To this end, its work is mainly direct to the construction and the planning of activities like training and upgrading of teachers and every person involved in education. The section of Padua has distinguished itself since its founding by the organization of conferences and refresher courses for teachers of elementary schools. A significant amount of documentation relating to the activity of this section is currently preserved at the Museum of Education (University of Padua). It is possible to consult teachers’ meeting minutes, programs for refresher courses, lists of members, notes, lessons plans, collections of photographs, administrative documents, correspondence with the other sections, and so on. All these relevant documents, not yet studied, the proceedings of the National congress – including two symposiums organized in Padua (1956 and 1996) – and the examination of the Italian Pedagogical Association bulletin have made possible the reenactment of a very interesting experience of teachers’ association during the second half of the twentieth century.

Povzetek
Italijansko pedagoško združenje (Associazione Pedagogica Italiana), ki ga je leta 1950 v Firencah ustanovil Giovanni Calò v sodelovanju z nekaterimi večjimi učenjaki pedagogike (Aldo Agazzi, Giovanni Maria Bertin, Giuseppe Flores d'Arcais), je še vedno dejavno po vsej državi, zahvaljujoč usklajenemu prizadevanju številnih lokalnih sekcij. Posebnost programa Italijanskega pedagoškega združenja je povezovanje učiteljev vseh ravni izobrazbe in univerzitetne profesorje, da bi izboljšali in prenovili šolo in katerokoli drugo izobraževalno ustanovo, kot tudi izboljšali študij in raziskave na področju pedagogike. Delo združenja je usmerjeno predvsem v gradnjo in načrtovanje dejavnosti, kot sta usposabljanje in izpopolnjevanje učiteljev in vseh oseb, ki se ukvarjajo z izobraževanjem. Padovanska sekcija se vse od ustanovitve odlikuje po organizaciji konferenc in osvežitvenih tečajev za osnovnošolske učitelje. Obsežna dokumentacija, ki se nanaša na dejavnosti sekcije, se trenutno hrani v Šolskem muzeju (Univerza v Padovi). Možno si je ogledati zapisnike pedagoških sestankov, programe za izpopolnjevalne tečaje, sezname članov, zapiske, učne načrte, zbirke fotografij, upravne dokumente, dopisovanje z drugimi sekcijami itd. Vsi ti pomembni dokumenti, ki še niso bili proučeni, zborniki nacionalnih kongresov – vključno z dvema simpozijema, organiziranima v Padovi (1956 in 1996) - in pregled poročil Italijanskega pedagoškega združenja, so omogočili obnovo zelo zanimive izkušnje združenja učiteljev v drugi polovici 20. stoletja.

Ključne besede: učiteljstvo, društva, Italija, 20. stoletje
Keywords: teachers, association, Italy, 20th century
15th Symposium on School Life, part 56. Visit us / obiščite nas - Sistory: http://hdl.handle.net/11686/37710

 

Tea Anžur: The Association of University Professors of Ljubljana
- Vereinigung der Universitätsprofessoren von Ljubljana
- Društvo univerzitetnih profesorjev v Ljubljani

Izvleček
Ljubljanska univerza je že dve leti po nastanku – ob koncu leta 1921 – ustanovila društvo, ki je povezalo visokošolske profesorje in se je imenovalo »Udružnje visokošlskih učiteljev v Ljubljani.« Naloga društva je bila pomagati mladi univerzi, ki se je že kmalu po ustanovitvi srečevala z vrsto težav. Zlasti v prvem desetletju, to je v dvajsetih letih prejšnjega stoletja je Udruženje slovenskih profesorjev pomembno sodelovalo v boju za izboljšanje položaja slovenske univerze. Prizadevali so si zlasti za njeno neokrnjenost in obstoj. Po vojni je bilo Društvo več kot desetletje del sindikalne organizacije, zato se je ukvarjalo s sindikalnimi problemi svojih članov (stanovanja, dopustovanja, urejanje posmrtninskega in kreditnega sklada). Njegova primarna naloga pa je bila tudi skrb za kakovostno delo svojih članov, prizadevanje za ustreznejši položaj univerzitetnih asistentov in ustvarjanje primernejših delovnih razmer na univerzi.

Abstract
Towards the end of 1921, two years after its foundation, the University of Ljubljana established an association of professors of higher education called “The Society of Teachers of Higher Education of Ljubljana”. Its mission was to provide support for the young university, faced with a number of difficulties soon after its foundation. In the first decade especially – that is, in the 1920’s – the Association of Slovenian Professors played an important role in the struggle to improve the situation at the Slovenian university. Their main effort was to preserve its integrity and existence. After the Second World War more than a decade the Association was a part of the union and it was mainly dealing with current problems of the union members (housing, vacations and collective credit funds). Its main role was also to improve the status of university teachers and working conditions at University.

Summary
Towards the end of 1921, two years after its foundation, the University of Ljubljana established an association of professors of higher education called “The Association of University Professors of Ljubljana”. Its mission was to provide support for the young university, faced with a number of difficulties soon after its foundation. In the first decade especially – that is, in the 1920’s – the Association of Slovenian Professors played an important role in the struggle to improve the situation at the Slovenian university. Their main objective was to preserve its integrity and existence. In 1925, Professor PhD Karel Hinterlechner, Association member and University Rector, opposed the disbandment of the University and rejected criticism that the University of Ljubljana raised too many, graduate students, emphasizing that the University's main job was “to cultivate an impartial science, even disregarding the needs of the University”. The Association also worked closely with the University Council. Following the measures taken by the Belgrade government as a result of the non-academic retirement of some of the professors at the University of Zagreb without the knowledge and cooperation of the academic authorities, they responded together, expressing their disagreement. As for the costs necessary for the existence of the University, the staff, at the proposal of Professor PhD Ivan Plečnik, elected a three-member council, responsible for managing a national fund for the support of the University. It consisted of Professors PhD Franc Ksaver Lukman, PhD Karel Hinterlechner and PhD Fran Eller. When a new university law was being drafted (in 1930), the Society members were already deep in discussion on individual articles of the law in March 1928 at the general meeting. With its centralist system, the dictatorship of the 6th of January suppressed the operation of the Association. In 1931, the dissolved Slovenian “Society of University Teachers” was replaced by “The Association of University Teachers of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia” with three individual sections in Belgrade, Zagreb and Ljubljana. One year before the war, the Ljubljana section had an average membership of 40 to 75 people. During World War II, under Italian occupation, the Association of Schoolteachers of the Region of Ljubljana was formed with separate branches for university and assistant professors. After the war, the Association revived once again.

 

Povzetek
Ljubljanska univerza je dve leti po nastanku – ob koncu leta 1921 – ustanovila društvo, ki je povezalo visokošolske profesorje in se je imenovalo »Udružnje visokošlskih učteljev v Ljubljani. « Naloga društva je bila pomagati mladi univerzi, ki se je že kmalu po ustanovitvi srečevala z vrsto težv. Zlasti v prvem desetletju, to je v dvajsetih letih prejšjega stoletja, je Udružnje slovenskih profesorjev pomembno sodelovalo v boju za izboljšnje položja slovenske univerze. Prizadevali so si zlasti za njeno neokrnjenost in obstoj. Prof. dr. Karel Hinterlechner, član društva in rektor univerze, je leta 1925 nasprotoval ukinitvi univerze in zavračl očtke, da ljubljanska univerza vzgoji prevečabsolventov, ter poudaril, da je naloga univerze predvsem »nega nepristranske znanosti in to celo ne oziraje se na potrebe univerze«. Društvo je tesno sodelovalo tudi z univerzitetnim svetom. Ob ukrepih beograjske vlade zaradi neakademske upokojitve nekaterih profesorjev na zagrebški univerzi brez vednosti in sodelovanja akademskih oblasti so skupaj nastopili in izrazili nestrinjanje. Glede stroškov, ki so bili potrebni za obstoj univerze, je profesorski svet na predlog prof. dr. Ivana Plečnika izvolil tričlanski svet, ki je vodil narodni fond za vzdrževanje univerze. V njem so bil profesorji dr. Franc Ksaver Lukman, dr. Karel Hinterlechner in dr. Fran Eller. Ko se je pripravljal nov zakon o univerzi (1930), so člani Udruženja o posameznih členih zakona že marca 1928 zelo aktivno razpravljali na občnem zboru. Šestojanuarska diktatura je s svojim centralističnim sistemom zatrla delovanje društva. Leta 1931 je ukinjeno slovensko »Udružnje univerzitetnih nastavnikov» nadomestilo »Udružnje univerzitetskih nastavnika kraljevine Jugoslavije« s tremi sekcijami v Beogradu, Zagrebu in Ljubljani. Leta pred drugo svetovno vojno je bilo v ljubljanski sekciji Udruženja včlanjenih povprečno 40 do 75 oseb. Med drugo svetovno vojno v času italijanske okupacije je delovalo Združenje šolnikov Ljubljanske pokrajine s posebnim odsekom za univerzitetne profesorje in docente. Po vojni je društvo znova zaživelo.

Ključne besede: Univerza v Ljubljani, univerzitetni profesorji, društvo
Key words: University of Ljubljana, university professors, association
15th Symposium on School Life, part 58. Visit us / obiščite nas - Sistory: http://hdl.handle.net/11686/37712

 

Jan Šimek: The importance of teachers’ association in the establishment of the Pedagogical museum in Prague
- Bedeutung der Lehrerverbände bei der Errichtung des Pädagogischen Museums in Prag
- Pomen učiteljskih društev za nastanek Pedagoškega muzeja v Pragi

Izvleček
Leta 1880 je bila ustanovljena „Centralna zveza učiteljskih društev“ (Útřdníspolek jednot učtelskýh), ki je povezovala posamezna regionalna drušva čših osnovnošlskih učteljev. Dejavnosti centralne zveze so bile precej široke. Prispevek bo na kratko predstavil centralno društvo, predvsem pa se bo osredotočil na problem nastajanja češkega pedagoškega muzeja in prva desetletja njegovega obstoja. Stalna razstava učnih pripomočkov (1890) je neločljivo povezana z Josefom Kliko (1857-1906), izjemnim učiteljem, aktivnim organizatorjem in vodjo praških učiteljev, ki je bil dejaven tudi pri „Centralni zvezi učiteljskih društev“. Društvo je realiziralo mnoge projekte, med drugim je leta 1892 ustanovilo muzej Komenskega. Dediščina Josefa Klike je del zbirk Narodnega pedagoškega muzeja in knjižnice J. A. Komenskega v Pragi, kjer so shranjeni tudi drugi viri na to temo.

Abstract
In 1880 the “Central Association of Teachers’ Unities” (Útřdníspolek jednot učtelskýh) which unified other regional “unities” (associations) of Czech teachers of elementary schools was established. The activities of this Central Association were considerably wide. This contribution briefly introduces the Central Association itself, but will primarily focus on the problem of formation of the Czech pedagogical museum and the first decades of its existence. The Permanent Exhibition of Teaching Aids (1890) is inseparably connected with Josef Klika (1857-1906), an outstanding teacher and active organizer and leader of Prague teachers, who was also engaged in the “Central Association of Teachers Unities”. This Association realised many extraordinary projects, including the founding of the Comenius Museum in 1892. The inheritance of Josef Klika is a part of collections of The National pedagogical museum and Library of J. A. Comenius in Prague, where mostly other sources on this issue are deposited.

Summary
In 1880 the “Central Association of Teachers’ Unities” ”(Útřdníspolek jednot učtelskýh) which unified other regional “unities” (associations) of Czech elemenetary school teachers was established. The activities of this Central Association were considerably wide, the range of questions discussed at the annual general meetings included matters from questions concerning material provision of teachers (in the last decades of the 19th century it was a significant part of the agenda of Association) to the practical issues of teaching methods. This contribution briefly introduces the Central Association itself, but primarily it will focus on the problem of the formation of the Czech pedagogical museum and the first decades of its existence. The idea of establishing a museum was partially realized in 1890, when the “Permanent Exhibition of Teaching Aids” (so not directly the museum which was originally intended) was opened. The formation of the Permanent school exhibition is inseparably connected with Josef Klika (1857-1906), an outstanding teacher and active organizer and leader of Prague teachers, who was also engaged in the “Central Association of Teachers Unities”. Therefore this contribution cannot omit this extraordinary personality of the movement of Czech teachers in the last decades of the 19th century. In fact, Josef Klika is a good example to demonstrate, how the strong individuality was able to realize through the Teachers Associationso many extraordinary projects, e. g. the founding of the Permanent exhibition /1890, the founding of the Comenius Museum (1892) or the publishing of the Encyclopedia of Education, the greatest scientific and editorial project of Czech teachers in the 19th century. The inheritance of Josef Klika is part of the collections of The National pedagogical museum and Library of J. A. Comenius in Prague, where mostly other sources on this issue are deposited.

Ključne besede: učiteljska združenja, pedagoški muzej, muzej Komenskega, Josef Klika, Praga
Key words: teachers association, pedagogical museum, Comenius Museum, Josef Klika, Prague
15th Symposium on School Life, part 42. Visit us / obiščite nas - Sistory: http://hdl.handle.net/11686/37693

 

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