SCHOOL CHRONICLE / Journal of the History of Schooling and Education.
Bulletin of the Slovenian School Museum. Ljubljana. Slovenia.
Year 2018 number 1-2
Barbara Zalar: The training of Yugoslav Communists at the Communist University of the National Minorities of the West in Moscow in the 1920s and 30s
The article describes the training of the Yugoslav communists at the Communist University of the National Minorities of the West in Moscow in the 1920s and 30s. The main source of information for this was archive material from the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, which is presented in this article (in Slovenian translation). This period is very important for understanding the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, since the future professional revolutionaries learnt the Bolshevik policies, methods and approaches that were a constituent part of Stalin’s Soviet Union.Povzetek
Kraljevina SHS je s sprejetjem zakona o zaščiti države popolnoma prepovedala kakršno koli delovanje KPJ in jo tako potisnila v ilegalo. Veliko članov partije se je pred represijo v domači deželi umaknilo v Sovjetsko zvezo, kjer so se nekateri zaposlili v Kominterni in drugih političnih organizacijah, nekateri pa so študirali na mednarodnih šolah za komunistične emigrante. Ena od takšnih šol je bila tudi Komunistična univerza nacionalnih manjšin Zahoda, ki je bila ustanovljena novembra 1921. Od študijskega leta 1925/26 dalje je v njenem okviru deloval tudi poseben sektor za Jugoslovane. Šolanje novega komunističnega kadra se je skozi vsa leta ohranjalo v tajnosti. Vse kandidate za bodoče študente so pred začetkom šolanja dobro preverile njihove matične partije, nato pa so bili podvrženi strogemu preverjanju tudi po prihodu v Moskvo. Ta ukrep je zmanjševal možnost infiltracije provokatorjev, vohunov, razrednih sovražnikov in drugih neželenih elementov. Univerza in partijsko vodstvo sta skrbno bedela nad potekom šolanja – spremljala sta napredek vsakega študenta ter ocenjevala delo predavateljev. Tudi Komunistična univerza ni bila imuna na stanje, ki je vladalo v takratni Sovjetski zvezi, kjer je vsakdo sumničil vsakogar. Jugoslovanski študenti so v duhu takratnega časa ovajali svoje študijske kolege, da bi si rešili lastno življenje. Poleg tega so tovariško vzdušje v sektorju kazili tudi frakcijski boji znotraj partije.
Key words: Yugoslav Communists, Soviet Union, Comintern, Communism, training
Tatjana Hojan: The pedagogical journal Popotnik a hundred years ago
The article describes the content of the main Slovenian pedagogical journal a hundred years ago. It was published during a turning point in history when a new editor took over and World War One lasted for another nine months and then a new state of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians was created.Povzetek
Popotnik, pedagoški in znanstven list, je leta 1918 izšel že devetintridesetič. Uredila sta ga učitelja Mihael Nerat in Pavel Flere. Prvi se je s tem letnikom poslovil po 35 letih in predal uredništvo Fleretu, ki ga je na to mesto postavila tudi takratna slovenska učiteljska organizacija Zaveza, ki je bila lastnica in založnica lista. Pavel Flere je avtor številnih razprav, ocen in krajših prispevkov o šolstvu. Objavljal jih je pod svojim imenom in pod psevdonimi. Poleg njega so v tem letniku sodelovali učitelji, ki so napisali že več člankov v naših pedagoških listih: Fran Erjavec, Ivan Šega, Fran Kocbek, učiteljici Marija Kmet in Regina Gobec ter profesorja dr. Ivan Lah in dr. Simon Dolar. Letnik 1918 je vseboval različna področja. Precej člankov in krajših poročil je obravnavalo socialno skrbstvo, reformo učiteljskega izobraževanja in metodiko posameznih učnih predmetov. Predstavljeni so bili nekateri tuji pedagogi in šolstvo, šolske novice pri nas in v tujini, predstavljene nove knjige in revije ter slovenski pregovori in reki. Nadaljevala se je razprava o patru Hipolitu in njegovem prevodu knjige Jana Amosa Komenskega Orbis pictus.
Key words: Popotnik, pedagogical journal, school, lessons
Marjeta Žebovec: The history of the Smlednik Primary School building
In 2015, Smlednik celebrated two hundred years of its primary school. On this occasion, a collection of papers was published, presenting the history of the founding of the school, which was full of hurdles, the choosing of the building and of the construction of new buildings. Problems appeared as soon as the school began functioning and also after World War Two – the various authorities always found it difficult to provide financial resources for the school. But all the things made by the pupils and their subsequent professional careers prove that it was worth fighting for the school.Povzetek
Osnovna šola v Smledniku je delovala že na koncu 18. stoletja, za uradni datum ustanovitve pa velja november 1815. Dobrih dvajset let je trajalo, da je bila zgrajena ustrezna stavba za poučevanje, čez petdeset let je bila povečana, v 30. letih 20. stoletja je bila po šolski stavbi napeljana elektrika, po koncu druge svetovne vojne so jo obnovili, zgradili moderna stranišča na splakovanje, vendar je bilo kljub temu treba zgraditi novo šolo. Takratna politična oblast temu ni bila naklonjena, o tem je pisal nekdanji učenec v stari šoli, takrat pa občinski odbornik, ki je zaradi odnosa oblasti do gradnje nove šole odstopil s tega mesta. Novo šolsko poslopje sta projektirala arhitekta Emil Navinšek, inovator gradnje brezkoridornih šol, in Franc Čimžar. Prvo šolsko leto v novi šoli je bilo 1967/68, prizidek je bil slovesno odprt spomladi 2004, ker pa se število prebivalcev in s tem šoloobveznih otrok stalno spreminja, morajo stalno iskati rešitve, kam dati še en dodaten razred … Slovesno praznovanje petdesetletnice nove šole je bilo 7. aprila 2018, ob tem je bila do 8. maja v avli v prvem nadstropju šole postavljena razstava En sam velik, svetel, uporaben prostor: brezkoridorne šole Emila Navinška.
Key words: primary school, building, architect, anniversary
Gašper Mithans: Religious education of converts in interwar Slovenia
The paper will present the practice of the Catholic priests at the requests of non-Catholics to enter into Catholicism. In Slovenia these converts were in the interwar period originally often Catholics who converted into another religion and then wanted to “return” into the Catholic Church. The paper will research concrete examples of different groups, reasons and conditions for their crossing and re-conversion. The key requirements all candidates had to fulfill were the “lesson about the Catholic faith”, with an emphasis on the differences between the Catholic faith and the faith they wanted to withdraw from, and penance. For instructions on how to proceed and to obtain authorization for the admission of candidates in the Catholic Church, they had to turn to the competent bishop. In religiously mixed marriages the priests demanded a contract on the catholic education of children. Among candidates were also foreigners, especially shortly after World War I we find a lot of Russians among them. We note, that in the 1930s the requests of the Ljubljana diocesan office had tightened in comparison to the previous decade, and also the number of applications increased, namely in proportion to the increased number of exits from the Catholic Church.
Key words: converts, religious lesson, the Catholic Church, interwar period
Jure Ramšak: Situation of Religious Teachers in the 1970s under Socialism
The issue of the ideological affiliation of teachers in socialist schools was brought up soon after World War Two, but never fully resolved. The article talks about the heated debate at the time of ideological escalations in the 1970s, when the League of Communists dealt a blow to the concept of ideologically neutral school, but still had to recognise as a compromise the reality of the late-Socialist period and could not afford an open division between religious and non-religious. The result of the debate, involving highly educated individuals, satisfied neither the advocates of the religious nor those on the side of the Marxist establishment. Later, the newly emerging democratic opposition also drew attention to the concealed establishment of a communist monopoly in staff rooms. Nevertheless, the findings of the younger generation of sociologists of religion in particular contributed to the recognition that the pedagogical skills of teachers was more important than their religious affiliation.
Key words: socialist school, ideologies of education, Roman Catholic Church, religious teachers, moral and political criteria
Alenka Župančič: Gospodična Cizara – the secret manuscript newspaper of the students at the Ljubljana lyceum for girls
The article describes the self-initiated political, cultural and literary activities of the first-generation students at the Ljubljana lyceum for girls between 1911 and 1913. The students joined the secret students’ movement Preporod (Rebirth) and published the secret manuscript newspaper Miss Cizara. In it, the girls criticised Austrian politics and reactionary teachers. They enlisted recognised writers, such as Ivan Cankar and Oton Župančič, as contributors. The students used the newspaper as a training ground for writing prose, poetry, reviews and articles; the writer Vera Albreht was one of the students. Some of their work is printed here for the first time.
Key words: Gospodična Cizara, Town Lyceum for Girls in Ljubljana, Vera Kesler Albreht, Ivan Cankar, Oton Župančič
Katarina Jurjavčič: The first years of Institute for Physical culture, 1946–1950
The school was in the eyes of the ideologists of the post-war regime and their pedagogical advisors one of the most important weapons in the fight for a "new society" and a "new man", and therefore it had to be redesigned with new people and contents. The pre-war gymnastic societies Sokol and Orel were replaced with Physical culture (from 1948 Physical education) association of Slovenia, which, in 1952, was transformed into Association for physical education Partizan. On the 27th June 1947 the journal Comrade (“Tovariš”) reported that the Institution for physical culture “will liberate the Slovenian physical culture from foreign influence and give it people and worldly character”. After one year of schooling the first generation of new gym teachers dispersed across Slovenian towns and started to shape the destiny of sport development at both local and national level. Through their personal stories and the preserved archive sources we enlighten the mechanisms for the establishment of higher education and its impact on the development or revival of sports life in the new socialist regime in general.Povzetek
Poudariti je treba dober učni načrt Zavoda za fizkulturo za izvajanje praktičnih predmetov, tudi v njihovi različnosti, na podlagi katerih je bilo omogočeno lažje prenašanje znanja novim generacijam učencev. Učiteljski zbor je ves čas na državni ravni dejavno sodeloval pri pripravi učnih programov in smernic za razvoj telesne vzgoje. Prva povojna generacija se je izjemno zavedala moči sodelovanja in vzajemne pomoči pri napredku (določenega kraja ali družbe nasploh), zato je hitro vzpostavila vezi s pomembnimi posamezniki, najprej večinoma v gospodarstvu, nato pa tudi v politiki, ki so jim prek svojih zvez omogočili lažje izvajanje načrtov in zamisli v praksi. Sam Zavod za fizkulturo je deloval vse do 26. novembra 1953 pod okriljem Komiteja za srednje šolstvo, ko je bil ustanovljen Inštitut za telesno vzgojo v Ljubljani z višješolskim študijem in »nastala je prva šla za telesno kulturo na Slovenskem«, ki sicer ni bila višješolska, ampak je bila, kot poudari Drago Stepišnik »temelj za naprej«, kar priča tudi poudarek znanstvenemu raziskovanju.Ključne besede: povojno šolstvo, šport, socializem
Key words: post-war educational system, sport, exercise, socialism
Klaudija Sedar: The teachers of the parish schools in the lower Prekmurje region in the 17th and 18th centuries
The people of Prekmurje did not have their own religious and educational centre, since they did not have a diocese or any other important cultural centres. The main settlements in Prekmurje were thus also church and school centres. It is difficult to ascertain to what extent schools were truly active and what the educational process was like, since the available preserved sources contain little information on this. But fragments can still be found, which throw light on the role of teachers in the then educational process, which subjects were taught and in which language and, last but not least, what was the educational and ethnic background of these teachers. One thing is certain – their work is not comparable to today’s role of teachers, since suitable school premises were a rarity and teachers often also worked as sextons, cantors, organists and in other necessary jobs.
Key words: lower Prekmurje, 17th and 18th centuries, teachers and their characteristics, role of teachers, teaching
Gvido Stres: The teachers from the Stres family in the Gorica area and in Carinthia – chronicles of the Stres family teachers in the Gorica area, Carinthia and Ljubljana
The article talks about the life of three generations of teachers from the Stres family in the Gorica area from the 1860s to the early 1970s. The first members of the Stres family to become teachers were Anton Stres from Sužid near Kobarid and Amalija, nee Schlegel, from Šturije near Ajdovščina, who taught in Bovec, Breginj and Sedlo. Out of the eight children in their family, six were teachers: the sons Anton and Feliks and the daughters Fani, Ema Marija, Milena and Stanka, who were nationally aware teachers in schools around Gorica and also active outside school in the places where they worked. Anton (Tonin) was one of the founders of Slovenian mountaineering on the River Soča side of the Julian Alps and the writer of articles on mountaineering. Vera, the daughter of Tonin and Karla Stres, nee Lunder, became a pedagogy professor in Ljubljana and after World War Two she and her husband, Jože Kmetec, became renowned pedagogues and teachers for the deaf. The family of Alojzija and Feliks Stres – before World War One the latter taught in Temnica and Škrbina on the Karst – following a period when they were refugees in the Lower Carniola region, finally moved to Carinthia (Koroška) after Feliks got a teaching post in Leše near Prevalje in 1921. Three out of five children in the family were teachers or headteachers at various schools in Carinthia: Milena Stres and the headteacher Ivo Močnik in Libeliče, Boris and Mira Stres in Prevalje, and Gvido, also an amateur artist, was a teacher in Lokovica and Pameče, and from 1957 a librarian at the Study Library in Ravne na Koroškem.
Key words: the Stres family teachers, Gorica area, Carinthia/Koroška, patriotism, refugees
School Chronicle – Journal of the History of Schooling and Education. Bulletin of the Slovenian
School Museum. Ljubljana (Slovenia) is a Slovenian scientific and professional publication
concerned with schooling, pedagogy and education. Since 1992 it has been independently
issued by the Slovenian School Museum in Ljubljana. The Miscellany has developed from a joint
publication of the school-pedagogical museums in Ljubljana, Zagreb in Belgrade, which began
to be published in 1964 under the title of A Miscellany of the History of Schooling and Education.